This book collects new results, concepts and further developments of NMF. The open problems discussed include, e.g. in bioinformatics: NMF and its extensions applied to gene expression, sequence analysis, the functional characterization of genes, clustering and text mining etc. The research results previously scattered in different scientific journals and conference proceedings are methodically collected and presented in a unified form. While readers can read the book chapters sequentially, each chapter is also self-contained. This book can be a good reference work for researchers and engineers interested in NMF, and can also be used as a handbook for students and professionals seeking to gain a better understanding of the latest applications of NMF.