C. S. Mary, E. B. Rajsingh and Ganesh. R Naik
IEEE ACCESS Journal, Volume 4, Pages 4327-4354. Impact Factor 3.214 (2016)
Publication year: 2016

The rapid development of digital imaging and computer vision has increased the potential of using the image processing technologies in ophthalmology. Image processing systems are used in standard clinical practices with the development of medical diagnostic systems. The retinal images provide vital information about the health of the sensory part of the visual system. Retinal diseases, such as glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, Stargardt’s disease, and retinopathy of prematurity, can lead to blindness manifest as artifacts in the retinal image. An automated system can be used for offering standardized large-scale screening at a lower cost, which may reduce human errors, provide services to remote areas, as well as free from observer bias and fatigue. Treatment for retinal diseases is available; the challenge lies in finding a cost-effective approach with high sensitivity and specificity that can be applied to large populations in a timely manner to identify those who are at risk at the early stages of the disease. The progress of the glaucoma disease is very often quiet in the early stages. The number of people affected has been increasing and patients are seldom aware of the disease, which can cause delay in the treatment. A review of how computer-aided approaches may be applied in the diagnosis and staging of glaucoma is discussed here. The current status of the computer technology is reviewed, covering localization and segmentation of the optic nerve head, pixel level glaucomatic changes, diagonosis using 3-D data sets, and artificial neural networks for detecting the progression of the glaucoma disease.