Amit Acharyya, Pranit N Jadhav, Valentina Bono, Koushik Maharatna and Ganesh R Naik
Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine, Volume 158, Pages 123-133, Impact Factor - 2.674 (2017).
Publication year: 2018
Background and objective
EEG is a non-invasive tool for neuro-developmental disorder diagnosis and treatment. However, EEG signal is mixed with other biological signals including Ocular and Muscular artifacts making it difficult to extract the diagnostic features. Therefore, the contaminated EEG channels are often discarded by the medical practitioners which may result in less accurate diagnosis. Many existing methods require reference electrodes, which will create discomfort to the patient/children and cause hindrance to the diagnosis of the neuro-developmental disorder and Brain Computer Interface in the pervasive environment. Therefore, it would be ideal if these artifacts can be removed real time on the hardware platform in an automated fashion and then the denoised EEG can be used for online diagnosis in a pervasive personalized healthcare environment without the need of any reference electrode.
In this paper we propose a reliable, robust and automated methodology to solve the aforementioned problem. The proposed methodology is based on the Haar function based Wavelet decompositions with simple threshold based wavelet domain denoising and artifacts removal schemes. Subsequently hardware implementation results are also presented. 100 EEG data from Physionet, Klinik für Epileptologie, Universität Bonn, Germany, Caltech EEG databases and 7 EEG data from 3 subjects from University of Southampton, UK have been studied and nine exhaustive case studies comprising of real and simulated data have been formulated and tested. The proposed methodology is prototyped and validated using FPGA platform.
Like existing literature, the performance of the proposed methodology is also measured in terms of correlation, regression and R-square statistics and the respective values lie above 80%, 79% and 65% with the gain in hardware complexity of 64.28% and improvement in hardware delay of 53.58% compared to state-of-the art approaches. Hardware design based on the proposed methodology consumes 75 micro-Watt power.
The automated methodology proposed in this paper, unlike the state of the art methods, can remove blink and muscular artifacts real time without the need of any extra electrode. Its reliability and robustness is also established after exhaustive simulation study and analysis on both simulated and real data. We believe the proposed methodology would be useful in next generation personalized pervasive healthcare for Brain Computer Interface and neuro-developmental disorder diagnosis and treatment.