Hannah Scott, Bastien Lechat, Alisha Guyett, Amy C Reynolds, Nicole Lovato, Ganesh R. Naik, Sarah Appleton, Robert Adams, Pierre Escourrou, Peter Catcheside, Danny J Eckert
Hypertension, Volume 80, Issue 5, Pages 1117-1126, Publisher Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Journal Ranking Q1. Impact Factor 8.3
Publication year: 2023

Background:

Irregularities in sleep duration and sleep timing have emerged as potential risk factors for hypertension. This study examined associations between irregularity in sleep duration and timing with hypertension in a large, global sample over multiple months.

Methods:

Data from 12 287 adults, who used an under-mattress device to monitor sleep duration and timing and also provided blood pressure recordings on ≥5 separate occasions, were analyzed. Sleep duration irregularity was assessed as the SD in total sleep time across the ≈9-month recording period. Sleep timing irregularity was assessed as SDs in sleep onset time, sleep midpoint, and sleep offset time. Logistic regressions were conducted to investigate associations between sleep irregularity and hypertension, defined as median systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg or median diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mm Hg.

Results:

Participants were middle-aged (mean±SD, 50±12 years), mostly men (88%) and overweight (body mass index, 28±6 kg/m−2). Sleep duration irregularity was consistently associated with an ≈9% to 17% increase in hypertension independently of the total sleep time. A ≈34-minute increase in sleep onset time irregularity was associated with a 32% increase in hypertension (1.32 [1.20–1.45]). A 32-minute increase in sleep midpoint irregularity was associated with an 18% increase in hypertension (1.18 [1.09–1.29]), while a 43-minute increase in sleep offset time irregularity was associated with an 8.9% increase in hypertension (1.09 [1.001–1.18]).

Conclusions:

These findings support that sleep irregularity, both in duration and timing, is a risk marker for poor cardiovascular health. Further mechanistic investigations of temporal relationships between day-to-day fluctuations in sleep duration and timing, next-day blood pressure, and other cardiovascular outcomes are warranted.